Collection Overview

Missions

The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program comprises a series of polar-orbiting and low-inclination satellites designed to monitor and understand Earth systems through long-term global observations.

MODIS

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument is operating aboard both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft. It views the entire surface of the Earth every one to two days. MODIS data contribute to a range of land and water application areas including wildfire monitoring, temperature and emissivity changes, land surface change, vegetation and ecosystem dynamics, natural disasters, and agriculture studies. Learn more about MODIS data.

MODIS Products Table MODIS Overview Decommissioned Documentation

ASTER

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data contribute to a wide array of global change-related application areas including vegetation and ecosystem dynamics, hazard monitoring, geology and soils, hydrology, and land cover change. The ASTER instrument is aboard the Terra satellite and is taskable and able to be scheduled for on-demand data acquisition requests. For more information on tasking ASTER please visit the ASTER JPL Website.

ASTER Products Table ASTER Overview

S-NPP VIIRS

Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). VIIRS observes the entire Earth’s surface twice each day, once during the day and once at night. VIIRS data contribute to a range of land and water application areas including wildfire monitoring, temperature and emissivity changes, land surface change, vegetation and ecosystem dynamics, natural disasters, and agriculture studies. Generated in a similar format to MODIS, VIIRS data products aim to extend the data lifecycle of MODIS products. Learn more about VIIRS data.

S-NPP VIIRS Products Table S-NPP VIIRS Overview

ECOSTRESS

Principal Investigator: Simon Hook, NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) is aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and measures the temperature of plants to better understand how much water plants need and how they respond to stress. ECOSTRESS addresses three overarching science questions: How is the terrestrial biosphere responding to changes in water availability? How do changes in diurnal vegetation water stress impact the global carbon cycle? Can agricultural vulnerability be reduced through advanced monitoring of agricultural water consumptive use and improved drought estimation? ECOSTRESS uses a multispectral thermal infrared radiometer to measure the surface temperature. The radiometer obtains detailed images of the Earth’s surface that can provide information on the temperature of an individual farmer’s field. Learn more on the ECOSTRESS website.

ECOSTRESS Products Table ECOSTRESS Overview

GEDI

Principal Investigator: Ralph Dubayah, University of Maryland

The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a full-waveform lidar instrument aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that produces detailed observations of the 3-dimensional structure of the Earth’s surface. GEDI precisely measures forest canopy height, canopy vertical structure, and surface elevation which enhances our understanding of global carbon and water cycle processes, biodiversity, and habitat. GEDI is the first of its kind to provide high resolution laser ranging observations optimized for lidar measurements of the Earth’s forests and topography at the highest resolution and densest sampling of any other lidar instrument in orbit. Data from GEDI is archived and distributed by the LP DAAC. Learn more about GEDI.

GEDI Products Table GEDI Overview

FUTURE MISSIONS

EMIT

Co-Investigators: Olga Kalashnikova, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Vincent J. Realmuto, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) is an Earth Ventures-Instrument (EVI-4) Mission to map the surface mineralogy of arid dust source regions via imaging spectroscopy in the visible and short-wave infrared (VSWIR). The maps of the source regions will be used to improve forecasts of the role of mineral dust in the radiative forcing (warming or cooling) of the atmosphere. EMIT is scheduled for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2024.

HLS

Co-Investigators: Jeffrey Masek, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Junchang Ju, University of Maryland

The Harmonized Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 (HLS) project is a NASA initiative aiming to produce a seamless, harmonized surface reflectance record from the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) aboard Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 remote sensing satellites, respectively. The HLS products are based on a set of algorithms to obtain seamless products from both sensors (OLI and MSI): atmospheric correction, cloud and cloud-shadow masking, geographic co-registration and common gridding, bidirectional reflectance distribution function normalization and bandpass adjustment. As of version 1.3, the HLS v1.3 data set covers 9.12 million km² and spans from first Landsat-8 data (2013) to present. HLS products provide near-daily surface reflectance information with a common geometric framework, and are suitable for a variety of agricultural and vegetation monitoring tasks, including analysis of crop type, condition, and phenology.

NOAA-20

JPSS-1, now known as NOAA-20, is the second spacecraft within NOAA's and NASA’s partnership of next generation of polar-orbiting satellites which was launched on November 18, 2017. NOAA-20 will take advantage of the successful technologies developed through the Suomi NPP satellite. NOAA-20's design life is seven years. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the key instruments aboard the NOAA-20 spacecraft. It collects visible and infrared imagery and global observations of land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans.