The African Sahel in Transition

March 31, 2020

Identifying changes in land cover over time in more remote parts of the world, like Africa’s Sahel region just south the Sahara Desert, can be challenging. The Sahel, a semi-arid ecosystem that can be found in 14 countries of sub-Saharan Africa, is at potential risk of desert creep if the region were to become hotter and drier. On the ground, it can be difficult to observe land surface changes in this area, but researchers are able to observe trends over the past 18 years by using remote sensing data from NASA’s LP DAAC.

One data product that is especially beneficial for studying how land cover changes over time is the combined Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Cover Type (MCD12Q1) Version 6 data. This product provides six distinct land cover classification layers at 500-meter spatial resolution, including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Classification, the Annual University of Maryland (UMD) classification layer and more. These layers provide consistent year-to-year land cover classifications, identifying cover types such as evergreen and deciduous forests, savannas, wetlands, croplands, urban areas, barren lands, and several others.

Below is a time-lapse of land cover dynamics in the countries of west Africa using this IGBP Classification from 2001 to 2018. This includes ecosystems that vary dramatically from north to south, with continent-wide strips of Sahara Desert in the north, semi-arid grasslands in the Sahel middle region, and savannas and rain forest along the coast and interior of central Africa.

MCD12Q1 Land Cover Type International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Classification data over western Africa, from 2001 to 2018.

Combined Terra and Aqua MODIS Land Cover Type International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Classification data over western Africa, from 2001 to 2018.

Granule IDs:
See Image Data Source section below for a list of Granule IDs used to make this image.

Data Citation:
Friedl, M., D. Sulla-Menashe. MCD12Q1 MODIS/Terra+Aqua Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V006. 2019, distributed by NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC, https://doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MCD12Q1.006. Accessed 2020-03-12.

From a continental view, fluctuations are noticeable over this two-decade span, but overall trends may not be easy to see. Using MODIS land cover data, however, we can take a closer look at the changes occurring within individual countries. For example, although the barren areas of the Sahara do not extend far into the countries of Senegal and Gambia, the transition between the shrublands and grasslands of the Sahel and the savannas and forests to the south appears to form not just an ecological border, but also a national one with Guinea-Bissau. The data also show that within the borders of Senegal and Gambia between 2001 and 2018, wetlands increased 14%, or a change of 376 km2 (145 mi2). The table below indicates the changes for all land types over this period. Regions that are defined by the Sahara Desert and the Sahel have become smaller, while croplands and savannas have expanded.

MCD12Q1 Land Cover Type International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Classification data over western Africa, from 2001 to 2018.

Combined Terra and Aqua MODIS Land Cover Type International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Classification data over western Africa, from 2001 to 2018.

Granule IDs:
See Image Data Source section below for a list of Granule IDs used to make this image.

Data Citation:
Friedl, M., D. Sulla-Menashe. MCD12Q1 MODIS/Terra+Aqua Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V006. 2019, distributed by NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC, https://doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MCD12Q1.006. Accessed 2020-03-12.

Land Type Change for Senegal

Land Type Change in Senegal and Gambia from 2001 to 2018.

Data from another sub-Saharan African location, along the Atlantic coast of Ghana, Togo, and Benin, shows the dynamics of these three countries over the same 18-year period. Details of note include active crop cultivation along borderlines, and significant urban growth, specifically during this span. The value of the MODIS land cover product can also be seen in the west central region of Ghana, close to its border with Côte d'Ivoire. Midway through the animation, a small pocket of blue can be identified. This water body is the reservoir created by the Bui Dam, a hydroelectric project that began construction in 2007 and was completed in 2013, which not only generates power, but also provides water for irrigation.

MCD12QA Land Type Change for Ghana, Togo, and Benin

Combined Terra and Aqua MODIS Land Cover Type International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Classification data, from 2001 to 2018.

Granule IDs: See Image Data Source section below for a list of Granule IDs used to make this image.

Data Citation: Friedl, M., D. Sulla-Menashe. MCD12Q1 MODIS/Terra+Aqua Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V006. 2019, distributed by NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC, https://doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MCD12Q1.006. Accessed 2020-03-12.

The Bui Dam is not the only project in West Africa that manages natural resources. An international effort called the Great Green Wall of Africa is a controversial attempt to keep the immense Sahara Desert at bay by planting trees and greenery along the at-risk areas of desert creep. In the coming years, the MODIS land cover data product, and other vegetation products from the LP DAAC, may be able to visualize this strip of trees that will eventually stretch thousands of kilometers across 11 countries.

Material written by Bradford Wirt​1

1 KBR, Inc., contractor to the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Work performed under USGS contract G15PC00012 for LP DAAC2.

2 LP DAAC work performed under NASA contract NNG14HH33I.

References

Monks, K., 2016, Can the Great Green Wall change direction?: CNN.com, September 26, 2016, accessed March 2, 2020, at https://www.cnn.com/2016/09/22/africa/great-green-wall-sahara/index.html.

Nield, D., 2018, The Sahara Desert has grown by 10%. Here’s what you need to know: ScienceAlert.com, March 30, 2018, accessed March 1, 2020, at https://www.sciencealert.com/sahara-expanding-10-percent-climate-change-to-blame.

Radford, T., 2017, Sahel monsoon may see African drylands bloom: Climate News Network, July 7, 2017, accessed February 25, 2020, at https://climatenewsnetwork.net/sahel-monsoon-could-see-african-desert-bloom/.

Verdict Media Limited, 2020, Bui Dam Hydroelectricity Project, Ghana: Water Technology web page, accessed March 4, 2020, at https://www.water-technology.net/projects/bui-dam-hydro-power-ghana/.

World Population Review, 2020, Lagos Population 2020: World Population Review web page, accessed February 29, 2020, at http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/lagos-population/.

Top Image: D-Stanley / creativecommons.org / CC BY-NC 2.0

Data Imagery Sources

West African Granules

MCD12Q1.A2001001.h16v08.006.2018142191541
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MCD12Q1.A2001001.h18v08.006.2018142203450
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h18v06.006.2018142203044
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MCD12Q1.A2001001.h19v08.006.2018142205623
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h17v08.006.2018142194955
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h18v07.006.2018142203818
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h19v07.006.2018142205518
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h17v06.006.2018142194213
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h17v08.006.2018143090607
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h16v07.006.2018143083854
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h16v08.006.2018143084125
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h19v06.006.2018143094845
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h17v07.006.2018143090125
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h16v06.006.2018143084315
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h19v07.006.2018143094643
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h18v07.006.2018143092748
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h19v08.006.2018143094833
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h17v06.006.2018143085845
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h18v06.006.2018143092313
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h18v08.006.2018143092427
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h17v07.006.2018144120900
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h16v08.006.2018144114445
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h17v06.006.2018144120838
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h16v07.006.2018144113838
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h16v06.006.2018144114444
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h19v07.006.2018144125523
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h18v08.006.2018144123645
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MCD12Q1.A2003001.h18v06.006.2018144123307
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MCD12Q1.A2003001.h19v06.006.2018144125347
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h18v07.006.2018144123417
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h17v08.006.2018145073829
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h19v07.006.2018145074908
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h18v07.006.2018145074200
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h17v06.006.2018145073525
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h18v08.006.2018145074223
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h18v06.006.2018145074154
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h16v07.006.2018145072032
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h17v07.006.2018145073707
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h16v06.006.2018145072200
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h16v08.006.2018145072455
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h19v06.006.2018145074845
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h19v08.006.2018145075013
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h19v08.006.2018145170652
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h18v08.006.2018145170234
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h16v07.006.2018145165602
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MCD12Q1.A2005001.h17v06.006.2018145165850
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h17v07.006.2018145165856
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MCD12Q1.A2005001.h18v07.006.2018145170223
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h18v06.006.2018145170217
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h19v07.006.2018145170556
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h17v08.006.2018145165902
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h16v08.006.2018145165638
MCD12Q1.A2006001.h16v08.006.2018145201212
MCD12Q1.A2006001.h16v07.006.2018145201602
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MCD12Q1.A2006001.h18v08.006.2018145205015
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MCD12Q1.A2006001.h19v08.006.2018145205640
MCD12Q1.A2006001.h17v07.006.2018145203602
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MCD12Q1.A2012001.h16v06.006.2018146010159
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MCD12Q1.A2015001.h17v07.006.2018146023559
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h19v06.006.2018146023914
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h19v08.006.2018146023924
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h16v07.006.2018146023354
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MCD12Q1.A2015001.h18v07.006.2018146023725
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h18v08.006.2018146023729
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h17v08.006.2018146023605
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MCD12Q1.A2016001.h18v07.006.2018149125924
MCD12Q1.A2016001.h17v08.006.2018149125805
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MCD12Q1.A2016001.h17v07.006.2018149125753
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MCD12Q1.A2016001.h19v08.006.2018149130055
MCD12Q1.A2016001.h19v06.006.2018149130044
MCD12Q1.A2017001.h17v08.006.2019196134742
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MCD12Q1.A2017001.h17v06.006.2019196134726
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MCD12Q1.A2017001.h18v07.006.2019196134901
MCD12Q1.A2017001.h18v08.006.2019196134914
MCD12Q1.A2017001.h18v06.006.2019196134859
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MCD12Q1.A2018001.h16v06.006.2019199201941
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MCD12Q1.A2018001.h17v08.006.2019199223059
MCD12Q1.A2018001.h17v07.006.2019199225947
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MCD12Q1.A2018001.h19v07.006.2019199234545

Senegal Granules

MCD12Q1.A2018001.h16v07.006.2019199202821
MCD12Q1.A2017001.h16v07.006.2019196134628
MCD12Q1.A2016001.h16v07.006.2018149125635
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h16v07.006.2018146023354
MCD12Q1.A2014001.h16v07.006.2018146020229
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MCD12Q1.A2011001.h16v07.006.2018146003025
MCD12Q1.A2010001.h16v07.006.2018145235843
MCD12Q1.A2009001.h16v07.006.2018145232852
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MCD12Q1.A2007001.h16v07.006.2018145222454
MCD12Q1.A2006001.h16v07.006.2018145201602
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h16v07.006.2018145165602
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h16v07.006.2018145072032
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h16v07.006.2018144113838
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h16v07.006.2018143083854
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h16v07.006.2018142191135

Ghana Granules

MCD12Q1.A2018001.h18v07.006.2019199225148
MCD12Q1.A2018001.h17v08.006.2019199223059
MCD12Q1.A2018001.h17v07.006.2019199225947
MCD12Q1.A2018001.h18v08.006.2019199223925
MCD12Q1.A2017001.h17v08.006.2019196134742
MCD12Q1.A2017001.h17v07.006.2019196134744
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MCD12Q1.A2017001.h18v08.006.2019196134914
MCD12Q1.A2016001.h18v07.006.2018149125924
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MCD12Q1.A2016001.h17v07.006.2018149125753
MCD12Q1.A2016001.h18v08.006.2018149125930
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h17v07.006.2018146023559
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h18v07.006.2018146023725
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h18v08.006.2018146023729
MCD12Q1.A2015001.h17v08.006.2018146023605
MCD12Q1.A2014001.h18v07.006.2018146020615
MCD12Q1.A2014001.h17v08.006.2018146020444
MCD12Q1.A2014001.h17v07.006.2018146020433
MCD12Q1.A2014001.h18v08.006.2018146020654
MCD12Q1.A2013001.h17v08.006.2018146013740
MCD12Q1.A2013001.h18v07.006.2018146013857
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MCD12Q1.A2011001.h18v08.006.2018146003411
MCD12Q1.A2011001.h17v08.006.2018146003216
MCD12Q1.A2011001.h17v07.006.2018146003211
MCD12Q1.A2010001.h18v08.006.2018146000133
MCD12Q1.A2010001.h17v08.006.2018146000009
MCD12Q1.A2010001.h18v07.006.2018146000129
MCD12Q1.A2010001.h17v07.006.2018146000013
MCD12Q1.A2009001.h18v08.006.2018145233123
MCD12Q1.A2009001.h17v07.006.2018145233002
MCD12Q1.A2009001.h17v08.006.2018145233007
MCD12Q1.A2009001.h18v07.006.2018145233117
MCD12Q1.A2008001.h18v08.006.2018145230403
MCD12Q1.A2008001.h17v08.006.2018145230252
MCD12Q1.A2008001.h17v07.006.2018145230242
MCD12Q1.A2008001.h18v07.006.2018145230402
MCD12Q1.A2007001.h18v07.006.2018145223121
MCD12Q1.A2007001.h17v07.006.2018145222703
MCD12Q1.A2007001.h18v08.006.2018145223125
MCD12Q1.A2007001.h17v08.006.2018145222718
MCD12Q1.A2006001.h18v07.006.2018145205002
MCD12Q1.A2006001.h17v08.006.2018145203706
MCD12Q1.A2006001.h18v08.006.2018145205015
MCD12Q1.A2006001.h17v07.006.2018145203602
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h18v08.006.2018145170234
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h17v07.006.2018145165856
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h18v07.006.2018145170223
MCD12Q1.A2005001.h17v08.006.2018145165902
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h17v08.006.2018145073829
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h18v07.006.2018145074200
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h18v08.006.2018145074223
MCD12Q1.A2004001.h17v07.006.2018145073707
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h17v07.006.2018144120900
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h18v08.006.2018144123645
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h17v08.006.2018144121401
MCD12Q1.A2003001.h18v07.006.2018144123417
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h17v08.006.2018143090607
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h17v07.006.2018143090125
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h18v07.006.2018143092748
MCD12Q1.A2002001.h18v08.006.2018143092427
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h17v07.006.2018142194043
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h18v08.006.2018142203450
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h17v08.006.2018142194955
MCD12Q1.A2001001.h18v07.006.2018142203818