Collection Overview


The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program comprises a series of polar-orbiting and low-inclination satellites designed to monitor and understand Earth systems through long-term global observations.


The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument is operating aboard both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft. It views the entire surface of the Earth every one to two days. MODIS data contribute to a range of land and water application areas including wildfire monitoring, temperature and emissivity changes, land surface change, vegetation and ecosystem dynamics, natural disasters, and agriculture studies. Learn more about MODIS data.

MODIS Products Table MODIS Overview Decommissioned Documentation


Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data contribute to a wide array of global change-related application areas including vegetation and ecosystem dynamics, hazard monitoring, geology and soils, hydrology, and land cover change. The ASTER instrument is aboard the Terra satellite and is taskable and able to be scheduled for on-demand data acquisition requests. For more information on tasking ASTER please visit the ASTER JPL Website.

ASTER Products Table ASTER Overview


The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is aboard both the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration-20 (NOAA-20) satellites. VIIRS observes the entire Earth’s surface twice each day, once during the day and once at night. VIIRS data contribute to a range of land and water application areas including wildfire monitoring, temperature and emissivity changes, land surface change, vegetation and ecosystem dynamics, natural disasters, and agriculture studies. Generated in a similar format to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), VIIRS data products aim to provide continuity with the MODIS mission. Learn more about VIIRS data.

VIIRS Products Table VIIRS Overview


Principal Investigator: Simon Hook, NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) is aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and measures the temperature of plants to better understand how much water plants need and how they respond to stress. ECOSTRESS addresses three overarching science questions: How is the terrestrial biosphere responding to changes in water availability? How do changes in diurnal vegetation water stress impact the global carbon cycle? Can agricultural vulnerability be reduced through advanced monitoring of agricultural water consumptive use and improved drought estimation? ECOSTRESS uses a multispectral thermal infrared radiometer to measure the surface temperature. The radiometer obtains detailed images of the Earth’s surface that can provide information on the temperature of an individual farmer’s field. Learn more on the ECOSTRESS website.

ECOSTRESS Products Table ECOSTRESS Overview


Principal Investigator: Robert O. Green, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) instrument aboard the International Space Station (ISS) measures visible and short-wave infrared (VSWIR) wavelengths of the surface mineralogy of arid dust source regions via imaging spectroscopy. The data collected by the EMIT instrument will be used to map relative abundance of source minerals to advance our understanding of the current and future role of mineral dust in the radiative forcing (warming or cooling) of the atmosphere. For more information, visit the EMIT website.

EMIT Products Table EMIT Overview


Principal Investigator: Ralph Dubayah, University of Maryland

The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a full-waveform lidar instrument aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that produces detailed observations of the 3-dimensional structure of the Earth’s surface. GEDI precisely measures forest canopy height, canopy vertical structure, and surface elevation which enhances our understanding of global carbon and water cycle processes, biodiversity, and habitat. GEDI is the first of its kind to provide high resolution laser ranging observations optimized for lidar measurements of the Earth’s forests and topography at the highest resolution and densest sampling of any other lidar instrument in orbit. Data from GEDI is archived and distributed by the LP DAAC. Learn more about GEDI.

GEDI Products Table GEDI Overview


Co-Investigators: Jeffrey Masek, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Junchang Ju, University of Maryland

The Harmonized Landsat Sentinel-2 (HLS) project is a NASA initiative to produce seamless, harmonized surface reflectance data from the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) aboard Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 Earth-observing satellites, respectively. The aim is to produce seamless products with normalized parameters, which include atmospheric correction, cloud and cloud-shadow masking, geographic co-registration and common gridding, bidirectional reflectance distribution function, and spectral band adjustment. This will provide global observation of the Earth’s surface every 2-3 days with 30 meter spatial resolution. Applications that will benefit include agriculture assessment and monitoring, and phenology.

HLS Products Table HLS Overview



National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-20 (NOAA-20), formerly Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1) is the second spacecraft within NOAA's and NASA’s partnership of next generation of polar-orbiting satellites which was launched on November 18, 2017. NOAA-20 will take advantage of the successful technologies developed through the Suomi NPP satellite. NOAA-20's design life is seven years. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the key instruments aboard the NOAA-20 spacecraft. It collects visible and infrared imagery and global observations of land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans.

SNWG OPERA Disturbance

Investigator: Matt Hansen, University of Maryland

The Global Land Disturbance Mapping for JPL Observation Products for End-Users for Remote Sensing Analysis ( OPERA) at the University of Maryland, is sponsored by NASA and developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in response to scientific gaps identified by the Satellite Needs Working Group (SNWG). The OPERA land Disturbance (DIST) product suite will provide near-global, per-pixel land surface change from Harmonized Landsat Sentinel-2 (HLS) scenes. The primary focus of the DIST product suite is to map vegetation cover loss along with general disturbance trends every 2–3 days with 30 meter spatial resolution. For more information on the OPERA DIST product suite, visit the DIST JPL product site.